In 1992, the Swedish University Computer Network (SUNET), Telia and Tele2 expressed a need to exchange traffic with each other. SUNET developed a solution allowing all three operators to connect to a neutral Internet Exchange Point (IXP) located at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) in Stockholm. This exchange point was called D-GIX and became the first Swedish Internet exchange point (IXP) and one of the first IXPs in Europe.
As the Internet grew, the Swedish government conducted an inquiry that identified Internet exchange points and the .SE domain as being vital to the functioning of the Internet in Sweden.
Following discussion at the Swedish Operators Forum (SOF), a foundation called the Stiftelsen för Telematikens Utveckling (TU-Stiftelsen) was formed and financed by the KK-stiftelsen – a foundation for knowledge and competence development. TU-Stiftelsen was founded to create an independent, stable and common organisation for the operation of critical Internet functionality in Sweden. The basic concept was that no single telecom operator would have undue influence over another and that TU-Stiftelsen would work for the good of the Internet.
In 1996, TU-stiftelsen formed Netnod as an organisation that could operate the IXP in Stockholm.
In 1997, the SOF and Netnod took a joint decision to implement the findings of the government inquiry, which suggested that several exchange points be established around the country. This resulted in SUNET selling the D-GIX exchange point to Netnod. At the same time, Netnod established a second, independent exchange point in Stockholm. In 1998, Netnod established an IXP in Gothenburg.
Netnod also started operating the Network Time Protocol (NTP) at its IXPs. This service involves synchronising computer clocks via the Internet and the standardised Internet protocol (NTP).
2000 - 2004
In 2000, Autonomica AB was formed as a subsidiary of Netnod. Autonomica would focus on research and the operation of .SE’s DNS slave servers at various IXPs.
An agreement was reached between NORDUnet and Autonomica for Autonomica to also take over responsibility for i.root-servers.net from NORDUnet. NORDUnet had been providing the i-root service (i.root-servers.net) since 1991 making it the first of the world’s 13 root name servers to be located outside of the United States.
NORDUnet wanted to focus on its role as an Internet service provider (ISP) and the decision to shift responsibility for i.root-servers.net to Autonomica was taken to ensure that the Internet infrastructure would be managed by a neutral organisation. Autonomica was also better suited to manage the i.root-servers.net service.
By the end of 2003, Autonomica had installed copies of the i.root-servers.net around the world at some of the largest operators and exchange points to make the Internet faster and provide better redundancy. Autonomica had also begun to offer the Anycast DNSNODE service as one of the first providers in the world.
2005 - 2015
In 2005, Netnod became fully DNSSEC enabled providing DNSSEC enabled anycast services to .SE. This made the Swedish Top Level Domain (TLD) the first TLD in the world to deploy DNSSEC.
In 2010, Netnod and Autonomica merged into one organisation under the single name Netnod.
In the same year, Netnod built a DWDM system at Netnod IX Stockholm lowering operational and connection costs. Route servers were installed at the Netnod IX Stockholm to help simplify peering administration for operators.
Netnod launched the Netnod Reach partner programme, allowing networks to connect to the Netnod IXP through a global reseller model.
In 2014, Netnod launched "Netnod COMIX" (later, Netnod IX Copenhagen), the distributed Internet exchange point connecting Copenhagen, Denmark, with Malmö, Sweden.
In 2016, Netnod launched Netnod IX Oslo (powered by NIX).
During 2017-18, Netnod implemented a new IX architecture to accommodate significant increases in capacity and to enable a range of connection options including: public peering, private peering, remote peering, and WDM transport services.
In 2019, following a leading role in developing the Network Time Security (NTS) standard, Netnod launched one of the first NTS-enabled time services in the world. In 2020, Netnod was recognised for world-leading time services by the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.
Netnod expanded the Netnod IX Sundsvall to Gavle creating a distributed IX for mid-Sweden.
During 2020-2021, Netnod deployed a series of new DNSNODE sites, including 10 new sites across the Americas. Netnod also implemented White Rabbit, a high accuracy time system, achieving sub-nanosecond accuracy on a live Swedish network.