In 1992, the Swedish University Computer Network (SUNET), Telia and Tele2 expressed a need to exchange traffic with each other. SUNET developed a solution allowing all three operators to connect to a neutral Internet exchange point located at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) in Stockholm. This exchange point was called D-GIX and became the first Swedish exchange point in existence.
As the Internet grew and gained a more central role in Sweden’s infrastructure, the Swedish government took an active interest and ordered an inquiry into the Internet that identified the Internet exchange points and the .SE domain as being vital to the functioning of the Internet in Sweden. Following discussion at the Swedish Operators Forum (SOF), a foundation called the Stiftelsen för Telematikens Utveckling (TU-Stiftelsen) was formed and financed by the KK-stiftelsen – a foundation for knowledge and competence development. It was founded to create an independent, stable and common organisation for the operation of critical Internet functionality in Sweden. The basic concept was that no single telecom operator would have undue influence over another. This organisation would work for the good of the Internet, not for commercial gain.
Early in 1997, the TU-stiftelsen formed a subsidiary called Netnod AB that was responsible for operating the exchange point in Stockholm. The Internet inquiry suggested that several exchange points be established around the country. SOF and Netnod took a joint decision to implement those suggestions which resulted in SUNET selling the D-GIX exchange point to Netnod. At the same time, Netnod established a second, independent exchange point in Stockholm. All operators are now connected to both exchange points.
Netnod also started operating the Network Time Protocol (NTP) at each of the exchange points. This service involves synchronising computer clocks via the Internet and the standardised Internet protocol (NTP).
The year Netnod established an exchange point in Gothenburg.
Netnod continues to work for the good of the Internet. Revenues generated from the operators who connect to the exchange points are used to further develop the Internet and build new exchange points. In addition, Netnod’s consultants are active on the international Internet scene, where the Internet’s future is discussed from both a technological and political perspective.
A long discussion between several of SOF’s partners took place about how to increase Netnod’s operational responsibility for the Internet exchange points. Autonomica was formed as a subsidiary to Netnod and would focus on research and the operation of .SE’s slave servers at the various exchange points. An agreement was reached between NORDUnet and Autonomica for Autonomica to also take over responsibility for i.root-servers.net from NORDUnet (a collaboration between the 5 Nordic National Research and Education Networks). NORDUnet had since 1991, been responsible for i.root-servers.net, which was the first root name server outside the US. NORDUnet wanted to focus on its role as an Internet service provider (ISP) and the decision to shift responsibility for i.root-servers.net to Autonomica was taken to ensure that the Internet infrastructure would be managed by a neutral organisation. Autonomica was also better suited to manage the i.root-servers.net service.
The year Netnod established exchange points in Malmö and Sundsvall.
Autonomica began offering the Anycast DNSNODE service as one of the first providers in the world. Autonomica installed copies of the i.root-servers.net around the world at some of the largest operators and exchange points to make the Internet faster and have better redundancy.
The year Netnod established an exchange point in Luleå.
Netnod becomes fully DNSSEC available and provides DNSSEC enabled anycast services to .SE, the first TLD in the world to deploy DNSSEC.
Netnod builds a DWDM system at Telecity in Stockholm. This was done to lower operational costs for connected operators as well as to reduce the cost of connecting to Netnod.
Netnod builds a DWDM system at Interxion in Stockholm. This was done to lower operational costs for connected operators as well as to reduce the cost of connecting to Netnod. Netnod and Autonomica merge into one organisation under the single name Netnod.
In the spring of 2011, Netnod installs two route servers in Stockholm to simplify the peering administration for the operators at the exchange point.